Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pentheroscion: Greek, pente = five + Greek, oschion = scrotum (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poll.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 350 m (Ref. 2683), usually 80 - 200 m (Ref. 3593). Deep-water; 12°N - 17°S
Eastern Atlantic: Guinea to southern Angola.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593)
Found in deep shelf and upper slopes over mud, sand and rock bottoms. Also moves in midwater, in equatorial regions below the thermocline (Ref. 3593).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 17.1, mean 15.6 °C (based on 25 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00270 - 0.01286), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.5 [13.9, 60.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.324 [0.166, 0.607] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.0, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.222 [0.107, 0.423] g/100g ; Selenium = 26 [11, 67] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.04 [1.59, 33.88] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.447 [0.284, 0.723] mg/100g (wet weight);