Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Limnothrissa: Greek, limne = swamp + Greek, thrissa, es = shad (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 60 m (Ref. 27631), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 21°C - 29°C (Ref. 5392); 3°S - 18°S
Africa: endemic to Lake Tanganyika (Ref. 188, 28136, 107916), but introduced into several other lakes, like Lake Kivu, Lake Kariba and Cahora Bassa reservoir (Ref. 188, 7248, 28136, 52193). Also reported as Microthrissa stappersii from Lake Mweru (Ref. 246, 52958), but this is based on an erroneous type locality of the species (Ref. 26733).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 6.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36901); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967); max. published weight: 40.00 g (Ref. 36901)
soft rays: 15 - 19;
Vertebrae: 41 - 44. Diagnosis: Body fairly slender, depth about 22-24% of standard length; pre-pelvic scutes not strongly keeled, beginning behind base of last pectoral fin ray; maxilla blade over 4 times as long as its shaft, its lower toothed edge continued forward to meet hind tip of pre-maxilla; second supra-maxilla asymmetrical, lower half larger; lower gillrakers long and slender, 35-40; a distinct silver stripe along flank (Ref. 188, 1878). Its synonym Limnothrissa stappersii is characterised by fewer lower gill rakers, 22-25, fewer anal fin rays, 15-17, and the absence of scutes, and represents possibly a juvenile form of L. miodon (Ref. 188, 26733). It resembles Stolothrissa tanganicae of Lake Tanganyika, which is more slender, has a small eye and a shorter maxilla blade not reaching forward to hind tip of premaxilla (Ref. 188).
Inhabits offshore areas of lake Tanganyika; also occurs at rivermouths, where the water is not too muddy and not very different physico-chemically from the Lake (Ref. 5393); lacustrine, forming large schools (Ref. 188, 7248), preferring open water (Ref. 13337). It has been successfully introduced to Lake Kivu, Lake Kariba and Cahora Bassa reservoir (Ref. 4967); found throughout Lake Kariba in both inshore habitats and open water to a depth of 20-35 m depending on the thermocline (Ref. 7248, 52193). Feeds on plankton, especially atyid shrimps, also copepods and prawns, but larger individuals apparently take larval Stolothrissa (Ref. 188). Cannibalism does occur (Ref. 13337). Breeds close to the shore throughout the rainy seasons, but with peaks in May/June and December/January (Ref. 188). Fire is used to attract the fish and caught by means of scoop nets (Ref. 36900). Used widely as bait by anglers, especially for tigerfish (Ref. 7248, 52193).
Breeds close to the shore during the rainy seasons, but with peaks in May/June and December/January (Ref. 188).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 13055)
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00409 - 0.01345), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 1.6 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.0 (0.7 - 1.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.86-1.2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 310 [149, 695] mg/100g ; Iron = 4.57 [2.35, 8.72] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.8, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.505 [0.197, 1.293] g/100g ; Selenium = 51.9 [16.8, 135.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.4 [2.6, 38.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.8 [1.7, 4.6] mg/100g (wet weight);