Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 8 - 100 m (Ref. 89896), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 9626). Tropical; 34°N - 8°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, southern Florida (USA), and Bahamas to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 320.00 g (Ref. 9626)
soft rays: 12 - 13. Moderately elongate, compressed fish with equally curved upper and lower profiles (Ref. 26938). Color primarily violet or purple; large individuals with a wash of yellow on lower two-thirds of body; prolonged portions of dorsal and anal fins and tips of pelvic fins blackish (Ref. 13442). Caudal fin emarginate in young, lunate in adults (Ref 52831).
Inhabits seaward reef slopes; occasionally on shallow patch reefs (Ref. 9710). Found in large midwater aggregations feeding on plankton (Ref. 9710), small jellyfishes, pteropods, pelagic tunicates and various invertebrate larvae (Ref. 13442). Form leks during breeding (Ref. 55367). Also caught with beach nets (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Forms lek during breeding (Ref. 55367). A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Length at sex change = 15.78 cm TL (Ref. 55367).
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28, mean 26.8 °C (based on 170 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00458 - 0.01993), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .