Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Asia: Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan (Ref. 4832) and Sri Lanka (Ref. 6028). Reported from Myanmar (Ref. 57739) and Thailand (Ref. 9648).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1479); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 1479)
Adults occur in rivers, streams, lakes and backwaters. Tolerant of salinity. They form schools in groups of four or five to several dozens (Ref. 6028). Feed on aquatic insects, fish, algae and shrimps. Spawn in running waters among submerged boulders and vegetation (Ref. 4832). Small fish have limited demand in the aquarium trade.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pethiyagoda, R., 1991. Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 362 p. (Ref. 6028)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00937 - 0.01343), b=3.01 (2.96 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 259 [71, 866] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.805 [0.356, 1.737] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.553 [0.254, 1.253] g/100g ; Selenium = 63.4 [27.8, 126.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.8 [11.1, 62.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.62, 1.88] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.