Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 1900 m (Ref. 50550), usually 400 - 600 m (Ref. 51190). Temperate; 1°C - 4°C (Ref. 56457); 26°N - 62°N, 117°E - 122°W (Ref. 101341)
North Pacific: China (Ref. 559, 33837), Japan, and Kuril Islands to Canada and California, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 29 - 31 cm
Max length : 62.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 51190); common length : 42.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 51190); max. published weight: 4.4 kg (Ref. 51190); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 51190)
Occurs on mud and sand bottoms (Ref. 9137, 11230).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.4 - 5.2, mean 2.1 °C (based on 114 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00620 - 0.01342), b=3.13 (3.01 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .