Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Liopropomatinae
Etymology: Liopropoma: Greek, leio = smooth + Greek, pro = in front of + Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335); santi: Named for Roger Sant, one of the collectors and a donor of Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History for ocean-related activities..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 182 - 241 m (Ref. 95858). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 95858)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8;
Vertebrae: 24. This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: D VIII,13; A III, 8; pectoral fin 15; 20-21 total gill rakers on first arch (including rudiments); 47-48 lateral-line scales; length of first dorsal spine, 2.9-4.2% SL; margin of spinous dorsal fin moderately indented posteriorly in adults (fourth spine 11-12% SL, fifth and sixth spines only slightly shorter than fourth, 6.9-10% SL); depth at origin of dorsal fin, 23-26% SL; least depth of caudal peduncle, 11-13% SL; orbit diameter, 9.4-12% SL; upper lip with yellow-orange stripe; approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings in a series on the ventral portion of trunk; a reddish-black blotch on distal portion of lower caudal-fin lobe (Ref. 95858).
Inhabits rocky slopes and ledges. When approached and illuminated by the submersible, it retreated into small caves and crevices (Ref. 95858).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Baldwin, C. and D.R. Robertson, 2014. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Lipropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins. ZooKeys 409:71-92. (Ref. 95858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 19.9 - 22.7, mean 22.7 °C (based on 3 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).