Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Chabanaud.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 260 - 945 m (Ref. 10734). Deep-water; 14°N - 12°S
Eastern Central Atlantic: off West Africa, mainly extending from 2°N to 12°S. A record from 14°49'N, 17°43'W (IOS 10873), represents a northwesterly range extension.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10734)
Inhabits mud bottoms (Ref. 10734).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1990. Eastern Atlantic tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae, Pleuronectiformes), with descriptions of two new species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 47(2):464-515. (Ref. 10734)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.1 - 8.9, mean 8.8 °C (based on 22 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .