Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 45 m (Ref. 58652). Tropical; 35°N - 30°S, 30°E - 140°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Line and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.7 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 107958); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57863)
Found in aggregations over hard, algal coated bottoms of exposed, surf-swept outer reef flats, lagoon and seaward reefs, to a depth of at least 24 m (Ref. 30573). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles associated with floating material (Ref. 58302). Mainly herbivorous, feeding on seaweed and associated invertebrates (Ref. 30573). Appear to be more commonly involved in hallucinogenic fish poisoning than most other related species (Ref. 4690). Caught with other types of artisanal gear. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knudsen, S.W. and K.D. Clements, 2013. Revision of the fish family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Zootaxa 3751(1):001-101. (Ref. 95491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 854 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.00900 - 0.03851), b=3.03 (2.84 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.2 [25.2, 64.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.583 [0.391, 0.837] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [18.3, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.125 [0.093, 0.168] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.7 [26.1, 64.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 45.3 [18.2, 112.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.90, 1.59] mg/100g (wet weight);