Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Fowler.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Southeast Pacfiic: Easter Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54393)
soft rays: 7;
Vertebrae: 24. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 16-17 (three of four with 16). Gill rakers 7-8 + 27-29 (total 35-37). Body depth 2.95-3.3 in SL; head length (HL) 2.7-2.95 in SL; snout length 1.7-1.75 in HL; barbel length 1.45-1.7 in HL; third dorsal spine longest, 1.55-2.0 in HL; penultimate dorsal ray at most 1.1 in length of last dorsal ray; pectoral-fin length 1.4-1.5 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.35-1.55 in HL. Body in life with a broad white stripe just above lateral line, bordered dorsally by a series of close-set black spots along uppermost row of scales; side of body below lateral line light brown with five large square blackish bars (each scale in bars with a black spot), the last anteriorly on caudal peduncle continuing dorsally across white stripe; head bluish gray dorsally with transverse rows of black spots on nape and interorbital; fins dusky to reddish (Ref. 54393).
Stomach contents include a juvenile spiny lobster (Panulirus pascuensis) and small crabs (Ref. 54393).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00556 - 0.02601), b=3.10 (2.93 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 137 [62, 346] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.476 [0.236, 1.091] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [14.5, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.237 [0.118, 0.482] g/100g ; Selenium = 98.1 [42.0, 264.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 85.3 [13.1, 413.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.562 [0.313, 1.176] mg/100g (wet weight);