Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 15 - 100 m (Ref. 26999). Tropical; 14°N - 17°S
Eastern Atlantic: Gambia to southern Angola.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593)
Found in coastal waters over mud bottoms. Feeds on small shrimps, worms and other benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3665). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 2683.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.2 - 25.9, mean 20.8 °C (based on 40 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00270 - 0.01286), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 184 [94, 346] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.973 [0.589, 1.790] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [16.3, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.309 [0.142, 0.650] g/100g ; Selenium = 78.1 [36.3, 182.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.7 [5.4, 48.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.48 [0.93, 2.30] mg/100g (wet weight);