Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - 110 m (Ref. 12260). Subtropical; 46°N - 10°S, 47°E - 142°E
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Indonesia, north to Hokkaido, Japan. Extralimital captures have been made from the Adriatic and off Hawaii. Not recorded from Australasia. Northeastern Atlantic: 3 reports of capture reported from this area (Ref. 86350).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.3, range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9811); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9811); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 45538)
Vertebrae: 34 - 37. Body firm, very deep, oval, and compressed. Operculum absent; gill opening reduced to a vertical slit on the side of the body; gill membrane broadly united to isthmus. Dorsal and anal fins preceded by a series of 5 to 10 blade-like spines with anterior and posterior points. Pelvic fins absent. Caudal fin deeply forked, the lower lobe longer than the upper. Color is gray above grading to silvery white towards the belly, with small black dots all over the body. Fins are faintly yellow; vertical fins with dark edges.
Inshore species, usually in schools over muddy bottoms, associated with fish species like Nemipterus and Leiognathus. Adults feed on ctenophores, salps, medusae, and other zooplankton groups. Western populations spawn from late winter through the summer with peaks from April to June. Sold fresh in local markets or shipped frozen to urban centers. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Haedrich, R.L., 1984. Stromateidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3517)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.9 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1636 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01440 - 0.02522), b=3.02 (2.94 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24-0.26; tmax=7; Fec=5,470).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .