Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Acanthuridae
(Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 85 m (Ref. 1602), usually 1 - 85 m (Ref. 27115). Subtropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 32°N - 28°S, 119°E - 109°W
Western Central Pacific: primarily anti-equatorial; Mariana Islands, southern Japan, Marcus Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands in the north and New Caledonia, Rapa (Austral Islands), and Tuamoto Islands, Pitcairn group, and Easter Island in the south.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
soft rays: 23 - 25. A whitish bar broadly bordered by dark brown from origin of dorsal fin across operculum. Caudal fin without a white posterior margin. Caudal concavity 10.5 to 12 times in SL. Body depth 1.7 to 1.8 times in SL (Ref 9808).
Inhabits primarily boulder-strewn areas of surge zone and browses on filamentous algae (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Often in schools (Ref. 9710). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 27115.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1956. A revision of the surgeonfish genus Acanthurus. Pac. Sci. 10(2):159-235. (Ref. 1920)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.7, mean 27.1 °C (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.01113 - 0.04936), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .