Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Acanthuridae
(Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forster.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 8 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 52°E - 140°W
Indo-Pacific: oceanic islands in the western Indian Ocean to the Hawaiian, Marquesan and Tuamoto islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 23 - 26. Preserved color is brown; spotted, white spots usually bordered with dark brown (may help conceal it in turbulent water that is often filled with small bubbles). Pelvic fins bright yellow. Each side of caudal peduncle with a single, sharp, forward-pointing erectile spine. Gill rakers on anterior row: 21-24; gill rakers on posterior row: 19-23.
Occurs in surge zone of clear seaward reefs (Ref. 9710, 58302). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302); mainly oceanic and found schooling in shallow depths over reef flats subject to surge or currents (Ref. 48637). Browses on filamentous and calcareous algae. Forms schools.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1956. A revision of the surgeonfish genus Acanthurus. Pac. Sci. 10(2):159-235. (Ref. 1920)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1389 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02884 (0.01655 - 0.05024), b=2.97 (2.82 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .