Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 21°S - 49°S, 68°W - 41°W
Southwest Atlantic: off southern Brazil to central Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3157); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077); max. reported age: 19 years (Ref. 97211)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka, 1986. Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. (Ref. 27363)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.6 - 21.3, mean 10.4 °C (based on 240 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00155 - 0.00892), b=3.10 (2.89 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .