Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 90102), usually 3 - 30 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 15°N - 0°N
Eastern Indian Ocean: Thailand, including the Similan Islands to Java, Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 23. Ocular band dark chocolate brown to black; a broad white arc running from isthmus and thorax to bases of 2nd - 4th dorsal spines; posterior to white band, body brown or gray dorsally, whitish below. Spines stout, not very pungent and venomous. Preopercular angle 120°; strong overlapping scales cover cheeks, 8 or 9 rows deep below center of orbit; midline of thorax fully scaled. Opening of anterior nostril borne on a very short tube which is taller posteriorly.
Inhabits coral reefs and feeds on algae and small invertebrates. Adults occur in pairs, juveniles secretive in corals (Ref. 48637). Sometimes solitary (Ref. 90102). Maximum depth from Ref. 027115.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 28.2 - 29.2, mean 28.7 °C (based on 36 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00653 - 0.03348), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.1 [22.2, 120.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.713 [0.329, 1.588] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.8, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.145 [0.075, 0.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.6 [6.6, 41.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.9 [9.5, 96.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.57, 2.73] mg/100g (wet weight);