Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Otolithoides: Greek, ous, oto = ear + Greek, lithos = stone + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 27°N - 1°N, 61°E - 120°E
Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan and along the coasts of India and Sri Lanka to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Viet Nam.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 160 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); common length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 72458)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found in coastal and inshore waters. Feeds on small fishes and invertebrates. An important foodfish. Sold fresh and dried salted (swim bladder) in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lal Mohan, R.S., 1984. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3490)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 546 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00440 - 0.00993), b=3.00 (2.88 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.5; tmax=6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 98.5 [52.3, 200.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.687 [0.379, 1.258] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.3, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.146 [0.073, 0.285] g/100g ; Selenium = 134 [61, 299] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 4.64 [1.54, 15.17] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.743 [0.456, 1.214] mg/100g (wet weight);