Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 13 m (Ref. 120818). Temperate; 12°C - 32°C (Ref. 12741); 55°N - 25°N, 108°W - 71°W (Ref. 86798)
North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River) and Mississippi River basins from Quebec in Canada and South Dakota and south to Louisiana in USA; and Mississippi River in Louisiana to Rio Grande in Texas and New Mexico, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86798); common length : 31.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits lakes, ponds and pools of small to large rivers (Ref. 5723, 86798). Occurs at depths <14 m (Ref. 120827). Juveniles feed on small invertebrates such as cladocerans, copepods, and midge larvae. Adults are piscivorous, consuming shad, silversides, and occasional young sunfish (Ref. 10294). Spawns near the surface (Ref. 120818).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Assuming same mode of reproduction as in M. saxatilis.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5781 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00602 - 0.01998), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.68 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 (1.9 - 4.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 13 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23-0.73; tmax=9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .