Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ginsburg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 55 m (Ref. 30915). Subtropical; 29°N - 25°S, 133°W - 40°W (Ref. 57010)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina in USA, Bermuda (Ref. 9710) and Bahamas to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 57756). International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.5 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 30915)
Uncommon in most areas, but may be locally common in certain places. Usually attached to gorgonians or seagrasses but may occur in floating Sargassum or swimming freely in midwater (Ref. 9710). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35409). Length type refers to Height (= from top of coronet to the tip of straightened tail).
Breeding season more than 8 months in laboratory; egg diameter 1.2 mm; gestation period 2 weeks, depending on water temperature; young approximately 7 mm at birth; pair-bonded in wild (Ref. 30915). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and genetic (Ref. 52884).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24 - 28, mean 26.7 °C (based on 164 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00176 - 0.01132), b=2.99 (2.77 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 1.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming annual Fec<1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .