Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: eastern coast of Africa to Indonesia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 115 - ? cm
Max length : 119 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); 120.0 cm WD (female); max. published weight: 30.0 kg (Ref. 11228)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A small devilray with a short head bearing short head fins; dorsal fin white-tipped, and pectoral fins with slightly curved tips; upper surface with no denticles and tail shorter than disc, with no spine (Ref. 5578). Dark brown above, white below (Ref. 5578).
Found in coastal and oceanic waters (Ref. 5578). Feeds on plankton (Ref. 30573). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Generally found in schools, leaping out of the water (Ref. 11228). Caught rarely in the tuna gillnet fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Probably giving birth to only one pup; born at ~31 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Randall, J.E., 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p. (Ref. 11441)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.9 - 29.1, mean 28 °C (based on 1852 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .