Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 9°S - 15°S
Africa: Endemic to Lake Malawi.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.0, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
(total): 15 - 17;
soft rays: 8 - 10;
Vertebrae: 30 - 32. Breeding males black, in some with white or yellowish dorsal lappets. Testes broad, white and sinuous when fully ripe. Lower pharyngeal toothed area with concave sides; median length of bone 1.2-1.3 times its width and 35.5-39.2 % length of head; blade 1.3-2.1 times median length of toothed area. Caudal fin scaly.
Occurs at a temperature range of 21.5-29.0 °C (Ref. 2). Inhabits very shallow and vegetated regions. Feeds on diatoms and debris collected from the bottom and from between vegetation (Ref. 5595).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Forms breeding colonies in water of 2 to 4 m depth off reedy shores.
Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Oreochromis. p. 307-346. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Checklist of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5166)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00700 - 0.03427), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.56-0.72; tm=3; tmax=5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .