Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hemiramphus: Greek, hemi = half + Greek, rhamphos = bill, peak (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical; 32°S - 40°S (Ref. 75154)
Western Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9843)
soft rays: 11 - 14;
Vertebrae: 52 - 55. This species is distinguished by the following characters: one dark spot on sides of body (below the dorsal fin); anal-fin rays 11-14 (usually 12-13); dorsal fin with well-developed anterior lobe, pigmented on anterior part; body width 1.3-1.8 times its depth; absence of scales on upper jaw; no preorbital ridge (Ref. 9843).
A coastal species mostly found in more turbid inshore waters replacing Hemiramphus far, which is more common in more oceanic waters (Ref. 9843). Inhabits estuaries (Ref. 75154). A high quality food fish well-known in markets of Brisbane, Queensland (Ref. 9843).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1999. Hemiramphidae. Halfbeaks. p. 2180-2196. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9843)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.7 - 20.6, mean 17.9 °C (based on 137 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00131 - 0.00635), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .