Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Sardinella: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia; diminutive (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 30°N - 11°S, 47°E - 153°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-West Pacific: from Kuwait to southern India and Bay of Bengal to the Philippines, also eastern tip of Papua New Guinea. Often confused with Sardinella gibbosa in Indian waters.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.3, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2178); common length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Body somewhat compressed but variable; total number of scutes 29 to 33. Vertical striae on scales not meeting at center, hind part of scales with a few perforations and (in Indian Ocean specimens) somewhat produced posteriorly. A dark spot at dorsal fin origin.
Forms schools in coastal waters. Misidentifications (especially with S. gibbosa in Indian waters and S. albella in the western Indian Ocean) make published biological data potentially unreliable. Marketed fresh, dried-salted, boiled or made into fish balls.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.5 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 862 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00513 - 0.01288), b=2.98 (2.85 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.7-1.6; tmax=3).
Prior r = 0.84, 95% CL = 0.56 - 1.26, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 563 [295, 1,067] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.25 [1.74, 5.76] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [18.2, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.765 [0.299, 1.930] g/100g ; Selenium = 98.5 [44.4, 248.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 23 [8, 77] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.35 [1.55, 3.55] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.