Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Spondyliosoma: Greek, spondylos = vertebra (1667) + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - 300 m (Ref. 3688). Subtropical; 63°N - 20°S, 26°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Scandinavia to northern Namibia (Ref. 11228), including the Strait of Gibraltar, Mediterranean and the Black Sea, Madeira, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
(total): 11-13. Body tall, with weak longitudinal stripes and no dark spots. Snout as long or longer than the eye diameter (Ref. 35388).
Found over seagrass beds and rocky and sandy bottoms to about 300 m (Ref. 3688). Gregarious, sometimes in large schools (Ref. 3688). Omnivorous, feeding on seaweeds and small invertebrates, especially crustaceans (Ref. 3688). Protogynic hermaphrodites (Ref. 4781). An important food fish.
Lays eggs on sandy bottom (Ref. 4781). Sex reversal occurs at approximately 24.3 cm TL in population from Algeria (Ref. 102321). Also Ref. 28504.
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7 - 17.2, mean 10.2 °C (based on 645 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01137 - 0.01393), b=3.03 (3.00 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3; Fec=36,000; tm=4).
Prior r = 0.47, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.71, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 68.4 [37.7, 127.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.05 [0.56, 1.78] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.6, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.346 [0.236, 0.508] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.6 [16.0, 56.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.9 [3.6, 30.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.859 [0.553, 1.245] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.