Ecology of Spondyliosoma cantharus
Main Ref. Gonçalves, J.M.S. and K. Erzini, 1998
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Spondyliosoma cantharus may be found.
Remarks Found over seagrass beds and rocky and sandy bottoms to about 300 m (Ref. 3688). Gregarious, sometimes in large schools (Ref. 3688). Omnivorous, feeding on seaweeds and small invertebrates, especially crustaceans (Ref. 3688).


Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Gonçalves, J.M.S. and K. Erzini, 1998
Feeding habit variable
Feeding habit ref Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.34 0.22 Troph of juv./adults from 2 studies.
Ref. Bell, J.D. and M.L. Harmelin-Vivien, 1983
From individual food items 3.27 0.47 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Sa-a, Pascualita on 02.18.00
Modified by Pablico, Grace Tolentino on 08.12.08
Checked by Miranda, Lilibeth on 05.09.01
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