Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Calamus: Greek, kalamos = reed, cane (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 22 m (Ref. 89891). Tropical; 30°N - 24°N, 98°W - 80°W
Western Central Atlantic: southern Florida to Louisiana in the USA. Also in eastern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3815)
Usually has dark spot (larger than pupil) on lateral line just behind gill opening.
Occurs in sea grass beds from near shore to at least 22 m. Small individuals have been known to form small aggregations. Feeds primarily on invertebrates. Marketed mostly fresh and frozen (Ref. 9739).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: occasionally
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 26.7, mean 24.7 °C (based on 121 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01049 - 0.04778), b=2.95 (2.78 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 164 [95, 321] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.85 [0.43, 1.59] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.263 [0.148, 0.469] g/100g ; Selenium = 48 [25, 97] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.5 [6.1, 59.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.03 [0.62, 1.61] mg/100g (wet weight);