Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Mugil: Latin, mugil, -ilis = grey mullet (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 13°N - 9°S
Western Atlantic: West Indies and the Atlantic coasts of Central and South America to southeastern Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3791); 35.0 cm TL (female); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Mainly found in brackish estuaries but also in marine and hyper-saline waters (Ref. 5217). During reproduction, they gather in small groups at the mouth of coastal rivers and creeks. Reproduction occurs in the early part of the year. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Eggs which are rich in yolk are spawned by the millions. Upon hatching, juveniles move up to the swamps and coastal rivers over long distances, to seek for food and to protect themselves against predators (Ref. 35237). Marketed fresh or salted (Ref. 5217). The roe is marketed salt-pickled and dried and considered a delicacy (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawning seems to take place in small groups in river mouths. Females lay millions of relatively large eggs rich in yolk.
Thomson, J.M., 1978. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3791)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 28.1, mean 27.4 °C (based on 46 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00584 - 0.01562), b=2.92 (2.79 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 705 [290, 1,477] mg/100g ; Iron = 8.23 [2.45, 18.99] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.1, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.591 [0.237, 1.556] g/100g ; Selenium = 167 [70, 467] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.67 [1.42, 21.93] μg/100g ; Zinc = 4.62 [2.15, 8.46] mg/100g (wet weight);