Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 5 m (Ref. 6390). Temperate; 21°S - 37°S
Oceania: throughout most of the Murray-Darling River system of South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, except for the upper reaches of the southern tributaries (Ref. 6390). Introduced into many lakes and dams throughout Victoria and New South Wales. Their abundance has been drastically reduced across their natural range and they are now considered rare in many Victorian tributaries (Ref. 27498).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 55.0, range 48 - 62 cm
Max length : 180 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); common length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. published weight: 113.5 kg (Ref. 27446); max. reported age: 48 years (Ref. 6987)
The Murray cod is one of the world's largest freshwater fish (Ref. 6390). They live in a wide range of habitats, from clear, rocky streams to slow flowing, turbid rivers and billabongs (Ref. 27498). They are generally found in waters to 5 m deep, in sheltered areas with cover from rocks, timber or overhanging banks. Adult fish are carnivorous, having a diet of invertebrates, fish, amphibians and occasionally reptiles, birds and aquatic mammals (Ref. 27498). The young feed on zooplankton. Spawning takes place from spring to early summer. Murray cod are territorial, their 'territory' associated with a specific hole, snag (large woody debris) or area of a river or lake (Ref. 27498). Juveniles may undertake migrations (Ref. 6390). Threatened due to over harvesting and habitat loss (Ref. 58490).
Cod form pairs & only one male spawn with each female (Ref. 27498). The spawning site can be in water as shallow as 30 cm (Ref. 27498). The male protect and probably fans the eggs during incubation (Ref. 27498).
Egg masses are laid on the bottom and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 6390).
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00451 - 0.02792), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3-6; tmax=48).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100).