Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory, usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 63°N - 28°N, 32°W - 25°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - 10 cm
Max length : 28.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 4742)
(total): 14 - 17;
soft rays: 8 - 11. A few cephalic pores (7-12) on snout. Lips with 5-7 folds. Scales on temporo-occipital surface 3-5 rows; on inter-operculum 2-3 (6-13) scales; on cheek 4-7; behind eye 1. A small dark spot on caudal peduncle. Often 5 large brown blotches near dorsal fin. Females and young: with numerous spots on body more or less longitudinally lined, some sinuous lines on head (Ref. 231). Coloration very variable; ground color of the male is greenish or blue while females are brownish to yellowish (Ref. 35388).
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco and the Azores. Also known from the western Mediterranean and Adriatic seas.
This schooling, territorial fish occurs in the littoral zone, near rocks and eel-grass beds, also in lagoons. In summer ripe females show short ovipositor. Seaweed nest built by male among rocks or in crevices. Sex reversal sometimes observed. Feed on mollusks, hydroids, bryozoans, worms and various crustaceans (Ref. 4742). Males grow faster than females (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00628 - 0.01452), b=3.09 (2.96 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21-0.41; tm=2-3; tmax=9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .