Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Valenciidae
Etymology: Valencia: After Valenciennes, the ichthyologist?.
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; non-migratory. Temperate; 10°C - 28°C (Ref. 2059); 42°N - 35°N, 6°W - 20°E
Europe: Spain along the Mediterranean coast between Tortosa and Cape San Antonio. Historical record from near Perpignan (France) where it is extirpated. In Appendix II of the Bern Convention (strictly protected fauna).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139); 8.0 cm TL (female); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 59043)
soft rays: 12 - 14. Diagnosed from other species of Valenciidae, Fundulidae and Cyprinodontidae in Europe by the following characters: male with caudal yellow to orange, with reddish-brown posterior margin; spots organized into 4-7 vertical rows; dorsal and anal fins of adult males reaching caudal fin; 28-29 scales in midlateral series on body; anal fin usually with 12-13 rays; pectoral fin with 13-14 rays; male bluish to greyish, with numerous very narrow darker bars, not always distinct anteriorly, iridescent spots absent (Ref. 59043).
A short-lived species. Adults are found in swamps, lagoons, springs and associated wetlands and other water bodies with little current and plenty of vegetation (Ref. 30578). They feed mainly on crustaceans and insect larvae (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to habitat destruction, water abstraction, pollution (Ref. 26100) and competition with the introduced Gambusia holbrooki (Ref. 59043). The first toothcarp in the German aquarium trade. Not a seasonal killifish. Difficult to maintain in aquarium (Ref. 27139).
Eggs are laid in batches of 10-30 eggs (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4; Fec=200).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100).