Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Line and Mangaréva islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4225); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 30874)
Adults occur near surface waters of lagoon and seaward reefs, in surge zones along sandy beaches (Ref. 48635, 90102). They always move in schools at the edge of the surf near the reef, usually in pairs or small groups in surface waters (Ref. 48635). They feed on small fishes (Ref. 9710). They are occasionally taken by trolling and line fishing.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3280 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00585 - 0.02711), b=2.96 (2.77 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52 [25, 107] mg/100g ; Iron = 1 [1, 2] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.5, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.314 [0.153, 0.655] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.3 [19.2, 87.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 84.2 [22.2, 295.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.19 [0.77, 1.84] mg/100g (wet weight);