Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Stephanolepis: Greek, stephanos = crown + Greek, lepis = scale (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 293 m (Ref. 5951). Subtropical; 46°N - 37°S, 98°W - 14°E
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada south along the U.S., Bermuda, the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and along South America to Uruguay (Ref. 114078). Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands, Morocco to Angola (Ref. 109259) including Madeira (Ref. 3592).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.9, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 36.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124459); max. published weight: 364.20 g (Ref. 124459)
Found on sand or mud bottoms. Associated with Sargassum (Ref. 26340). Adults feed on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5377). Edible but generally rejected by fishers (Ref. 5377).
Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Monacanthidae. p. 1061-1066. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 10.2 - 27, mean 21.1 °C (based on 480 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01479 - 0.02139), b=2.91 (2.86 - 2.96), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.37;).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 36.4 [12.4, 91.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.01 [0.53, 2.16] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.155 [0.068, 0.325] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.3 [6.9, 38.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.6 [6.3, 107.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.57, 1.83] mg/100g (wet weight);