Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Scorpaenoidei
(Scorpionfishes) > Scorpaenidae
(Scorpionfishes or rockfishes) > Scorpaeninae
Etymology: Scorpaena: Latin, scorpaena = a kind of fish, 1706 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually 1 - 73 m (Ref. 93606). Subtropical; 0°C -
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Western Pacific: coastal water of eastern Australia, from southern Queensland to Victoria.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93606); max. reported age: 33 years (Ref. 93630)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 9. This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: D 9, the 4th (rarely third) dorsal-fin spine longest; pectoral-fin rays 16-18 (mode 17); scale rows in longitudinal series 52-61(55); pored lateral-line scales 22-24 (23); scales above lateral line 4-6 (5), below 20-25 (22); scale rows between 6th dorsal-fin spine base and lateral line 6-8 (7), between last dorsal-fin spine base and lateral line 7-9 (9); pre-dorsal scale rows 1-4 (2); gill rakers on upper limb 4-6 (5), lower limb 10-13 (11) [7-9 and 2-5 rakers on ceratohyal and hypobranchial, respectively], total rakers 14-19 (16); embedded cycloid scales covering pectoral-fin base (some scales exposed); embedded cycloid scales on anteroventral surface of body (covered by thick skin, not visible without dissection); lateral surface of maxilla without a longitudinal ridge; lateral lacrimal spine with 2 (rarely 3) spinous points; anterior lacrimal spine with 1 or 2 small spinous points on its posterior margin; posterior lacrimal spine simple, directed anteroventrally in juveniles and young less than 100 mm SL, ventrally or posteroventrally in adults; median interorbital ridge present; interorbital and coronal spines absent; presence of occipital pit and supplement preopercular spine; pterotic spine usually simple in young, with 2 or more points in large adults usually more than 28.0 cm SL; space between upper and lower opercular spines covered by thick skin with sensory pores and canals; numerous skin flaps and tentacles on anterodorsal surface of body; a large black blotch distally on posterior spinous portion of dorsal fin in males; no distinct white blotches on caudal-fin base (Ref. 93606).
Common in rocky coastal reefs (Ref. 93630).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Motomura, H., C.D. Struthers, M.A. McGrouther and A.L. Stewart, 2011. Validity of Scorpaena jacksoniensis and a redescription of S. cardinalis, a senior synonym of S. cookii (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae). Ichthyol. Res. 58 (4):315-332. (Ref. 93606)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00692 - 0.04567), b=3.03 (2.80 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.6 [15.3, 80.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.68 [0.37, 1.36] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.2, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.273 [0.115, 0.798] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.4 [6.4, 35.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 72.4 [18.0, 272.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.821 [0.495, 1.411] mg/100g (wet weight);