Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; catadromous (Ref. 5259). Temperate; 5°C - 20°C (Ref. 2060); 37°S - 44°S
Oceania: southeast Australia, including Tasmania.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2906); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2906)
Found in streams and estuaries. Inhabits slow-flowing water around log snags, under over-hanging banks or among leaf litter (Ref. 5259, 44894). Adult fish migrate downstream to spawn in weedy estuaries from late April to August (Ref. 5259). Feeds on insects, crustaceans, mollusks, worms and fishes (Ref. 5259, 44894). Often buries itself in the substrate to ambush passing prey. A highly efficient osmo-regulator, able to withstand direct transfer from salt to fresh water without any indication of stress. Good eating, but too small to be considered a prime angling target (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).