Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Pentapodus: Greek, pente = five + Greek, pous = feet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 35 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 19°N - 23°S, 104°E - 131°E (Ref. 3810)
Western Pacific: Philippines, Indonesia, and northwestern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3810)
soft rays: 7. Head scales reaching forward to level of posterior nostrils. Suborbital naked. Lower limb of preopercle with 2 or 3 scale rows. Pelvic fins moderately long, reaching almost to level of anus. Axillary scale present. Color: Upper body blue, lower white.
Found on clear coastal reef slopes (Ref. 48635). A solitary species (Ref. 9710) but may be found also in groups (Ref. 90102). Excellent eye-sight (Ref. 48635). Feeds on small fishes, crustaceans, ophiuroids and sipunculid worms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.2 - 29.1, mean 28.7 °C (based on 1099 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00722 - 0.03173), b=2.97 (2.79 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 56.9 [34.4, 109.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.64 [0.35, 1.10] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.2, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.09, 0.25] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.4 [21.5, 67.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 57.9 [15.8, 158.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.19 [0.75, 1.77] mg/100g (wet weight);