Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 34 m (Ref. 11890), usually 1 - 12 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S, 120°E - 170°W (Ref. 74933)
Indo-Pacific: Moluccas and Philippines to Samoa and Tonga, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to southern Great Barrier Reef; Mariana and Caroline Islands in Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 7.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
soft rays: 8. Characterized by having dorsal fin rays VII-I, 9; anal fin rays II,8; pectoral fin rays 13; pelvic fin rays I, 5; pored lateral line scales 24; predorsal scales 3-4; circumpeduncular scales 12 (Ref. 93839); color is coppery or silvery with saddle or bar across the caudal peduncle and a wedge-shaped bar below the eye. Similar to A. fuscus but usually has fewer gill rakers (25-27 versus 28-30). Leading edge of ventral fin clearly pale-blue (Ref. 48635); characterized further by grey caudal peduncle with broad dark bar at base; pale grey at night; greatest depth of body 2.2-2.6 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Occur in outer reef slopes generally at depths below 30 m (Ref. 1602). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Solitary or in small groups (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.9 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 1393 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00880 - 0.02485), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 136 [79, 244] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.917 [0.594, 1.601] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.157 [0.094, 0.263] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.4 [13.0, 50.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 61.9 [19.4, 197.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.55 [1.03, 2.33] mg/100g (wet weight);