Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
More on author: Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 55), usually 40 - 50 m (Ref. 9313). Tropical; 26°N - 10°S, 110°W - 77°W (Ref. 55)
Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico to Peru, including the Mapelo, Cocos and Galapagos islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9313)
soft rays: 9. Head pointed, dorsal profile of forehead somewhat angular. Preorbital bone broad, maxilla extending nearly to mid-eye level. Preopercular notch and knob well developed. Scale rows on back parallel to lateral line. Upper back and top of head dark olive; sides and ventral parts dark purplish; silvery spots on side forming longitudinal rows.
Adults are found over hard bottoms in inshore reef areas. They form schools in surface waters around Cocos Island, Costa Rica (Ref. 9313). Carnivorous, feed on invertebrates and fish (Ref. 9313).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.6 - 25.4, mean 20.8 °C (based on 5 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00702 - 0.02976), b=2.97 (2.81 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.9 [14.3, 36.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.323 [0.213, 0.521] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.4, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.161 [0.112, 0.232] g/100g ; Selenium = 71.3 [43.4, 126.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 294 [58, 949] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.399 [0.283, 0.662] mg/100g (wet weight);