Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 9310), usually 2 - 6 m (Ref. 9310). Subtropical; 0°C - 33°C (Ref. 35682); 38°N - 23°N, 125°W - 106°W
Eastern Central Pacific: San Francisco in California, USA to southern Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 66.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 56049)
A resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Can leave tide pools if aquatic conditions become inhospitable (Ref. 31184). Also found near or over rocks and in kelp beds up to about 30 m depth. Feed mainly on seaweed, occasionally takes invertebrates. Form dense schools in spring in kelp beds. Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049). Breathe air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Considered an important game fish and may incidentally be caught in commercial fishing activities (Ref. 9310). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9310).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 15.4 - 24.2, mean 22.3 °C (based on 112 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00971 - 0.03111), b=3.15 (2.99 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2.5; tmax=10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.7 [25.3, 104.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.65, 1.87] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.3, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.231 [0.129, 0.411] g/100g ; Selenium = 30 [13, 70] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 4.98 [1.18, 21.68] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.925 [0.585, 1.454] mg/100g (wet weight);