Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Pimelodidae
Etymology: Zungaro: Native name Zungaro, applied to many large Pimelodids (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.5 - 7.2; dH range: ? - 18; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 20°C - 24°C (Ref. 2060)
South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 140 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36506)
Specimens measuring 130 cm and weighing 50 kg are not rare. In the Amazon, this fish is found quite upstream, in the main bed of the big tributaries with muddy bottom (Ref. 35381). Mainly piscivorous, hunts at night, sometimes going into flood prone areas of rivers. Some migrations in pursuit of migrating Triportheus and Anodus have been reported. Sexually mature upon reaching 10 kg weight. The nursery ground is at the river mouths (Ref. 35381).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Silfvergrip, A.M.C., 1992. Zungaro, a senior synonym of Paulicea (Teleostei: Pimelodidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 3(4):305-310. (Ref. 26389)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00641 - 0.02055), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 72.9 [35.4, 145.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.17 [0.69, 2.22] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.9, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.317 [0.146, 0.686] g/100g ; Selenium = 97.2 [39.1, 274.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 30.9 [10.2, 93.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.864 [0.567, 1.275] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.