Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 28 - 500 m (Ref. 104541). Temperate; 4°C - 19°C (Ref. 104541); 18°S - 57°S, 75°W - 52°W
Southeast Pacific and Southwest Atlantic: Uruguay (Ref. 58839) and Chile to the Patagonia-Falkland region. Records from Ecuador are questionable.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 103.5, range 97 - ? cm
Max length : 210 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 104541); common length : 85.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 104541)
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms at depths (Ref. 104541).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.5 - 10.6, mean 6.7 (based on 334 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00280 - 0.01185), b=3.13 (2.94 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.0 (8.7 - 13.1) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 12 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .