Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 59012); depth range - 2 m (Ref. 11890), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Asia and Oceania: Japan south to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Recorded from New Caledonia (Ref. 11889), and Micronesia (Ref. 59012).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
soft rays: 8. Trunk rhombic, mid body below the 1st dorsal base high. Nape moderately concave, snout tip rounded. Maxillary reaching rear border of eye. A distinct black spot just in front of anal base about equal to eye diameter in width.
Adults inhabit mangrove estuaries, tidal creeks and lower reaches of freshwater streams (Ref. 44894). Usually found in brackish water or freshwater of river mouths. Nocturnal (Ref. 7300), euryhaline species (Ref. 59012).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 1559 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00868 - 0.02407), b=3.17 (3.03 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .