Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on author: Klunzinger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 67 m (Ref. 57178). Temperate
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to southern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33839)
Nocturnal species; occurs inshore (Ref. 7300).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.9 - 18.5, mean 17 °C (based on 138 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.9 [17.9, 72.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.339 [0.197, 0.582] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [18.6, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.416 [0.225, 0.818] g/100g ; Selenium = 9.15 [3.98, 20.54] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47.8 [12.5, 189.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.847 [0.557, 1.299] mg/100g (wet weight);