Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Weber.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 15 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 12°S
Indo Pacific: East Africa to the Marshall Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Guinea. Reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
Forms large shoals among rocks or above corals of lagoon patch reefs (Ref. 1602). Often schools with R. gracilis (Ref. 37816). Spreads out at night, floating mid-water to catch plankton (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.9 - 29.3, mean 28.7 °C (based on 2354 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00528 - 0.02384), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 214 [118, 542] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.16 [0.70, 1.95] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.2, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.195 [0.113, 0.343] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.8 [13.0, 53.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 95.8 [31.8, 281.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2 [1, 3] mg/100g (wet weight);