Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Umbrina: Latin, umbra, -ae = shadow, in the sense of phantom; due to its quick movements (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 43°N - 36°S, 19°W - 56°E (Ref. 56870)
Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: western Mediterranean and Gibraltar (Ref. 3593) to the Cape and along the east coast of Africa to the Persian Gulf. Not yet recorded from Namibia but may eventually be found there (Ref. 27121).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11228); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3490)
Coastal species (Ref. 27000). Inhabits rocky and sandy bottoms (Ref. 2683). Juveniles may occur in littoral areas. Feeds on shrimps, worms and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 4780). Sold fresh (Ref. 3490).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.7 - 25.8, mean 17.3 °C (based on 233 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00449 - 0.02029), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .