Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Percopsiformes
(Trout-perches, pirate perches and cavef) > Amblyopsidae
Etymology: Typhlichthys: Greek, typhlops = blind + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335); subterraneus: subterraneus meaning beneath the earth (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate; 39°N - 34°N
North America: portions of Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10294); common length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 10294)
soft rays: 7 - 10;
Vertebrae: 28 - 29. Pink-white. No eyes (vestigial eye tissues under skin). Large, broad head. Caudal fin with 0-2 rows of papillae (Ref. 5723) and a vertical basal row (Ref. 10294); 10-15 branched caudal rays (Ref. 5723).
Adults inhabit subterranean water (Ref. 5723). Found in caves which are near the water table and are therefore more uniform than other amblyopsid caves (Ref. 34868). Feed mainly on copepods, amphipods and isopods (Ref. 10294). Eggs are carried in gill chambers of females (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Incubates eggs in gill chamber of females (Ref. 205). Fecundity is very low, perhaps fewer that 50 ova per female (Ref. 10294).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0088 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.43; tm=2; tmax=4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100).