Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Triakidae
(Houndsharks) > Triakinae
Etymology: Triakis: Greek, triakis = three times (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 156 m (Ref. 96339), usually ? - 6 m (Ref. 55312). Subtropical; 45°N - 19°N, 126°W - 105°W (Ref. 55312)
Eastern Pacific: Oregon, USA to the Gulf of California.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 105.0, range 100 - 129 cm
Max length : 198 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); 180.0 cm TL (female); common length : 160 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. ); max. published weight: 18.4 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 6145)
Found in shallow water from the intertidal to deeper waters, most commonly in enclosed muddy bays; including estuaries and lagoons (S. Wilson, pers. comm.). Prefer sandy areas, mud flats, and bottoms strewn with rocks near rocky reefs and kelp beds. Feed mainly on crabs, shrimps, bony fish, fish eggs, clam necks and innkeeper worms among a large variety of food in its diet. Form mixed schools. Ovoviviparous (aplacental), with 4 to 29 young in a litter. Utilized fresh or frozen for human consumption.
Females produce 6-24 young, which are 20-23 cm long at birth (Ref. 43439). Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.8 - 24, mean 20.4 °C (based on 131 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00251 (0.00124 - 0.00510), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 15.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.07-0.09; tm=11-21; tmax=30; Fec=4-12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (80 of 100) .