Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 48°N - 20°N
Northwest Pacific: southern Siberia to Taiwan (Ref. 244). Nominal records from the Philippines (Ref. 13563).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 99 - 108 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244)
Found on the continental and insular shelves, often occurring in shallow water close inshore. Prefers estuaries and shallow bays, especially sandy and algal-covered areas and eelgrass flats. Feeds on small fishes and probably crustaceans and other benthic invertebrates. Often solitary, though some may cluster in resting areas on bottom. Ovoviviparous (aplacental), with 10 to 20 young in a litter. Meat is regarded as of inferior quality.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.8 - 21.8, mean 18.8 °C (based on 52 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00263 (0.00118 - 0.00585), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=10; K=0.16; tmax=20.6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .