Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Tetragonuridae
Etymology: Tetragonurus: Greek, tetra = four + Greek, gonia = angle + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 800 m (Ref. 10823), usually 0 - 91 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical; 47°N - 8°N
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: in tropical and subtropical waters. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia in Canada to Panama (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4415)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Oceanic, mostly in the upper 91 m but adults probably deeper (Ref. 7251). Occasionally strays close to shore (Ref. 7251). Young commonly inquiline in pelagic tunicates, especially Salpa and Pyrosoma (Ref. 11149). Feeds on soft-bodied medusae, ctenophores and especially salps; will also take plankton (Ref. 11149). The flesh may be poisonous (Ref. 27121).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Haedrich, R.L., 1986. Tetragonuridae. p. 851. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4415)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 27121)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.9 - 28.5, mean 24.8 °C (based on 1976 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .