Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 144 m (Ref. 5951), usually 2 - 35 m (Ref. 5288). Subtropical; 35°N - 35°S
Eastern Atlantic: Madeira, Canary Islands, and St. Helena Island (Ref. 4472); range extending to São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088). Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and southwestern Gulf of Mexico to Uruguay (Ref. 7251), including the Caribbean (Ref. 4472). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89108); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3693)
Primarily found in shallow inshore waters (Ref. 4964). Rests on hard surfaces rather than on sand (Ref. 9710). Also occurs in reef areas, but ventures into open shelf water as deep as 90 m (Ref. 7251). Caught with several types of artisanal gear. Reportedly good to eat, but not utilized widely (Ref. 4964).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sulak, K.J., 1990. Synodontidae. p. 365-370. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4472)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.8 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 782 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00303 - 0.00755), b=3.20 (3.07 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.4 [12.5, 82.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.839 [0.335, 1.731] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [13.6, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.125 [0.045, 0.300] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.2 [7.8, 44.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 51.4 [11.2, 202.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.705 [0.362, 1.174] mg/100g (wet weight);