Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 400 m (Ref. 4472), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 4472). Subtropical; 45°N - 14°N, 80°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Cape Verde, including Azores and the Mediterranean. Western Atlantic: Bermuda and the Bahamas to the Lesser Antilles (Leeward Islands).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4472); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Primarily in insular waters (Ref. 4964), on sand and sand-rock bottoms (Ref. 6808). Feeds mainly on other fishes, but may also prey on other animals (Ref. 12382).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sulak, K.J., 1990. Synodontidae. p. 365-370. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4472)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.4 - 27.9, mean 19.8 °C (based on 172 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00402 - 0.00569), b=3.16 (3.11 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 85.7 [32.7, 210.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.965 [0.392, 1.871] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.7 [12.8, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.229 [0.089, 0.519] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.3 [12.2, 70.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.4 [6.3, 102.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.626 [0.339, 1.001] mg/100g (wet weight);