Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335); macrostigmus: Name from the Latinized conjunction of the Greek word 'macros' meaning large or long, and 'stigma' meaning brand or mark; referring to its large, black scapular blotch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 28 - 194 m (Ref. 93218). Tropical
Western Central Atlantic: NE Gulf of Mexico (off Alabama and Florida, Yucatan Mexico) and off Georgia and South Carolina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93218)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 11;
Vertebrae: 47 - 49. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following set of characters: D 11 or 12 (rarely 11); A 11; total caudal rays 41-42; dorsal segmented caudal rays 9 and ventral segmented caudal rays 10; dorsal procurrent caudal rays 12, ventral 10-11; pelvic fin rays 8; pectoral-fin rays 11 or 12; total vertebrae 47-49, modally 49; predorsal vertebrae 12 or 13; pored lateral-line scales 45-48; median predorsal scales 12 or 13; scale rows on cheek 4-6; large eye, 4.5-6.9% SL (16.7-24.7% head length); anterior nostril flap long, when depressed, tapering distally and extending over posterior nostril, length of flap 2.7-4.9% HL; snout blunt in dorsal view; pelvic-fin length 21.6-25.2% SL; colouration - caudal fin with dark pigment on anterior end of fork and posterior part of ventral caudal lobe, dorsal caudal lobe pale with light pigment on posterior margin, the shoulder with large, ovoid, black scapular blotch, length 14.2-19.0% HL, there are 6-9 dark bars on trunk, when alive the adults are gray to olive with unevenly distributed orange-yellow stripes along body (Ref. 93218).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Frable, B.W., C.C. Baldwin, B.M. Lutther and L.A. Weigt, 2013. A new species of western Atlantic lizardfish (Teleostei: Synodontidae: Synodus) and resurrection of Synodus bondi Fowler, 1939, as a valid species from the Caribean with redescription of S. bondi, S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766), and S. intermedius (Agassiz, 1829). Fish. Bull. 111(2):122-146. (Ref. 93218)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00217 - 0.00962), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .